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It is not our objective to present a detailed survey of every specific topic, method, or text mining task. This systematic mapping is a starting point, and surveys with a narrower focus should be conducted for reviewing the literature of specific subjects, according to one’s interests. In this paper, the researchers assessed the reading comprehension of texts in classrooms by matching students’ annotated texts to a knowledge base.

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The conduction of this systematic mapping followed the protocol presented in the last subsection and is illustrated in Fig. The selection and the information extraction phases were performed with support of the Start tool . In the following subsections, we describe our systematic mapping protocol and how this study was conducted. In the ever-expanding era of textual information, it is important for organizations to draw insights from such data to fuel businesses. Semantic Analysis helps machines interpret the meaning of texts and extract useful information, thus providing invaluable data while reducing manual efforts.

Basic Units of Semantic System:

The authors argue that search engines must also be able to find results that are indirectly related to the user’s keywords, considering the semantics and relationships between possible search results. This paper reports a systematic mapping study conducted to get a general overview of how text semantics is being treated in text mining studies. It fills a literature review gap in this broad research field through a well-defined review process. As a systematic mapping, our study follows the principles of a systematic mapping/review. However, as our goal was to develop a general mapping of a broad field, our study differs from the procedure suggested by Kitchenham and Charters in two ways.

Thus, this paper reports a systematic mapping study to overview the development of semantics-concerned studies and fill a literature review gap in this broad research field through a well-defined review process. Semantics can be related to a vast number of subjects, and most of them are studied in the natural language processing field. As examples of semantics-related subjects, we can mention representation of meaning, semantic parsing and interpretation, word sense disambiguation, and coreference resolution. Nevertheless, the focus of this paper is not on semantics but on semantics-concerned text mining studies. This paper aims to point some directions to the reader who is interested in semantics-concerned text mining researches.

QA-LaSIE: A Natural Language Question Answering System

In this section, we also present the protocol applied to conduct the systematic mapping study, including the research questions that guided this study and how it was conducted. The results of the systematic mapping, as well as identified future trends, are presented in the “Results and discussion” section. Traditionally, text mining techniques are based on both a bag-of-words representation and application of data mining techniques.

What is semantic analysis?

Semantic analysis is a sub-task of NLP. It uses machine learning and NLP to understand the real context of natural language. Search engines and chatbots use it to derive critical information from unstructured data, and also to identify emotion and sarcasm.

On this Wikipedia the language links are at the top of the page across from the article title. In Keyword Extraction, we try to obtain the essential words that define the entire document. Semantic Analysis is a topic of NLP which is explained on the GeeksforGeeks blog. The entities involved in this text, along with their relationships, are shown below. Both polysemy and homonymy words have the same syntax or spelling but the main difference between them is that in polysemy, the meanings of the words are related but in homonymy, the meanings of the words are not related. You understand that a customer is frustrated because a customer service agent is taking too long to respond.

Bibliographic and Citation Tools

Our semantic text analysis titles are text fragments, so this paper’s data-set most closely aligns with our intended data. As previously stated, the objective of this systematic mapping is to provide a general overview of semantics-concerned text mining studies. The papers considered in this systematic mapping study, as well as the mapping results, are limited by the applied search expression and the research questions. Therefore, the reader can miss in this systematic mapping report some previously known studies.

What is the example of semantic analysis?

Elements of Semantic Analysis

They can be understood by taking class-object as an analogy. For example: 'Color' is a hypernymy while 'grey', 'blue', 'red', etc, are its hyponyms. Homonymy: Homonymy refers to two or more lexical terms with the same spellings but completely distinct in meaning.

The approach helps deliver optimized and suitable content to the users, thereby boosting traffic and improving result relevance. Semantic analysis tech is highly beneficial for the customer service department of any company. Moreover, it is also helpful to customers as the technology enhances the overall customer experience at different levels. Semantic Scholar is a free, AI-powered research tool for scientific literature, based at the Allen Institute for AI. Both individuals and organizations that work with arXivLabs have embraced and accepted our values of openness, community, excellence, and user data privacy. ArXiv is committed to these values and only works with partners that adhere to them.

Studying meaning of individual word

The authors state that automatic ontology building from texts is the way to the timely production of ontologies for current applications and that many questions are still open in this field. The authors divide the ontology learning problem into seven tasks and discuss their developments. They state that ontology population task seems to be easier than learning ontology schema tasks. Sentiment analysis functionality to understand the voice of their customers, extract sentiments and emotions from text, and, in turn, derive actionable data from them.

To better analyze this question, in the mapping update performed in 2016, the full text of the studies were also considered. Figure 10 presents types of user’s participation identified in the literature mapping studies. Besides that, users are also requested to manually annotate or provide a few labeled data or generate of hand-crafted rules . The mapping reported in this paper was conducted with the general goal of providing an overview of the researches developed by the text mining community and that are concerned about text semantics. This mapping is based on 1693 studies selected as described in the previous section.

Significance of Semantics Analysis

For example, semantic analysis can generate a repository of the most common customer inquiries and then decide how to address or respond to them. Extensive business analytics enables an organization to gain precise insights into their customers. Consequently, they can offer the most relevant solutions to the needs of the target customers.


Thus, there is a lack of studies dealing with texts written in other languages. When considering semantics-concerned text mining, we believe that this lack can be filled with the development of good knowledge bases and natural language processing methods specific for these languages. Besides, the analysis of the impact of languages in semantic-concerned text mining is also an interesting open research question. A comparison among semantic aspects of different languages and their impact on the results of text mining techniques would also be interesting. Although computer science is often thought of as a field focused on numbers, writing programs that are capable of understanding human language has been a major focus in the field.

  • This paper reports a systematic mapping study conducted to get a general overview of how text semantics is being treated in text mining studies.
  • Another next step in refining these communities would be to develop a method for picking the most central review titles or keywords in the communities, to take the visual analysis aspect out of the keyword selection.
  • As a systematic mapping, our study follows the principles of a systematic mapping/review.
  • They describe some annotated corpora and named entity recognition tools and state that the lack of corpora is an important bottleneck in the field.
  • The automated process of identifying in which sense is a word used according to its context.
  • Schiessl and Bräscher , the only identified review written in Portuguese, formally define the term ontology and discuss the automatic building of ontologies from texts.

Hence, under Compositional Semantics Analysis, we try to understand how combinations of individual words form the meaning of the text. For Example, you could analyze the keywords in a bunch of tweets that have been categorized as “negative” and detect which words or topics are mentioned most often. This technique is used separately or can be used along with one of the above methods to gain more valuable insights. Differences, as well as similarities between various lexical-semantic structures, are also analyzed.

lexical items

This methodology aims to gain a more comprehensive insight into the sentiments and reactions of customers. Thus, semantic analysis helps an organization extrude such information that is impossible to reach through other analytical approaches. Currently, semantic analysis is gaining more popularity across various industries. They are putting their best efforts forward to embrace the method from a broader perspective and will continue to do so in the years to come. Now, we can understand that meaning representation shows how to put together the building blocks of semantic systems. In other words, it shows how to put together entities, concepts, relation and predicates to describe a situation.

document clustering


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